terça-feira, 30 de outubro de 2012

Exercícios de Inglês - 1º, 2º e 3º Ensino Médio - 4º Bimestre



Atividade para Ensino Médio – Text Comprehension

Brazil, the New Oil Superpower

State-run Petrobras’ “monstrous” new oil find has wide-ranging implications for the South American country, the oil majors, oil services providers, and beyond.
In a recent radio broadcast, Brazil’s President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva said he’s convinced a “higher power” has taken a shining to Brazil. 1That, he said, might explain the providence of state-run oil company Petrobras, whose colossal new oil discovery could transform Brazil from a barely 2self-sufficient producer into a 3major 4crude exporter. Petrobras announced Nov. 8 it has found between 5 billion and 8 billion barrels of light oil and gas at the Tupi field, 155 miles offshore southern Brazil in an area it shares with Britain’s BG Group and Portugal’s Galp Energy. Tupi is the world’s biggest oil find since a 12 billion-barrel Kazakh field was discovered in 2000, and the largest ever in deep waters.
Perhaps more important, Petrobras believes Tupi may be Brazil’s 5first of several new “elephants,” an industry term for 6outsize fields of more than 1 billion barrels.

Adapted from: www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/nov2007

1. (Ufc)  According to the text, it is correct to say that:
a) State-run Petrobras’ new oil find has very few implications for the South American country, the oil majors, oil services providers.  
b) the new oil discovery will definitely transform Brazil from a barely self-sufficient producer into a major crude exporter.  
c) it is expected that Tupi is just the first of many other Brazilian outsize oil fields.  
d) Petrobras is the only company which is going to explore the reserve found.  
e) Tupi is the world's biggest oil find of all times.  
2. (Ufc)  The pronoun “That” (ref. 1) refers to:
a) “Brazil”.  
b) “radio broadcast”.  
c) colossal new oil discovery.  
d) “the providence of state-run oil company Petrobras ”.  
e) “a ‘higher power’ has taken a shining to Brazil”.  

RUSSELL, BERTRAND (3rd Earl Russell) (1872–1970), philosopher and peace campaigner. Grandson of Whig prime minister Lord John Russell, he established his reputation with his work at Cambridge on mathematical logic, resulting in the publication (with A. N. Whitehead) of Principia Mathematica (1910–13). Removed from his Cambridge lectureship in 1915 for his open opposition to World War I and his support for conscientious objectors, he was imprisoned in 1918 for seditious writings.
Although he was restored to the Cambridge post in 1919, he gave it up to devote himself to writing. His later works include The Analysis of Matter (1927) and History of Western Philosophy (1948), as well as a large number of broadcasts and works of popular philosophy. These made him famous, and as a result he won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1950. An opponent of nuclear weapons, he was a co-founder of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) in 1958 and its first president, and was imprisoned in 1961 for his CND activities.

(GARDNER, J. & Wenborn, N., Eds. The History Today Companion to British History. London: Collins & Brown, 1995. Adapted)

3. (Ufpr)  According to the text, Bertrand Russell decided to give up his university career because:
a) he needed more time to found CND.  
b) he opposed government policy.  
c) he wanted to have more time to write.  
d) he lost interest in philosophy.  
e) his first book had made him rich.  

Texto 2

Sex Tourism and Male Prostitution: European Women
Travel to Africa In Search Of Young African Men For Sex

Reuters has a very interesting article that caught my attention today about a new trend in the sex tourism industry. The piece is about old rich European women most likely from the United Kingdom traveling to Africa in search of pretty young black men for sex.
Notice the double standards in the mainstream media in relation to sex tourism. Sex tourism is not just “specific” to just “one gender” yet the Occidental media has always framed this as a male only domain. We all have watched the documentaries about European or North American men traveling to Asia, Africa, or South America in search of young women for sex. Female sex tourism has gone on for decades yet now the mainstream media is finally focusing on the other side of sex tourism from the rich western woman’s perspective.
The rich Occidental women have egos as well they want to feel attractive and sexy. The European women feel compelled to travel to Africa in search of young black men because the power dynamics are in their favour.

Disponível em: <http://orvillelloyddouglas.wordpress.com/2007/11/27/sex-tourism-older-white-women-travelling-to-africa-seeking-young-black-men>. Acesso em:
17 mar. 2010. (Adaptado).

4. (Ueg)  De acordo com as afirmações do texto, é CORRETO afirmar que
a) a mídia ocidental ignora o turismo sexual praticado por mulheres, dando enfoque apenas para os casos masculinos.  
b) a prostituição masculina já supera, em números, a prostituição feminina em países da África, da Ásia e da América do Sul.  
c) o turismo sexual na Ásia, África e América do Sul é praticado tanto por homens quanto por mulheres de origem europeia e norte-americana.  
d) além de aumentar a autoestima, o turismo sexual praticado por mulheres europeias na África é estimulado pelas relações de poder em favor desse gênero.  

Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

The oil slick off the US Gulf Coast has been declared a matter of “national significance” amid growing concerns of an imminent environmental disaster. The spill began a week ago when an oil rig exploded and sank. Despite containment efforts, the oil is expected to reach land on Friday or Saturday.
Doug Suttles, of BP Exploration and Production said: “It is horribly difficult to estimate what the flow is, but what we can see is the quantity of oil on top of the water. We think that the range has increased of what the estimate has been. So I think that somewhere between one and five thousand barrels a day is probably the best estimate we have today.” News that much more oil is leaking than previously thought is adding a sense of urgency to the unprecedented clean-up and prevention operation. But as the situation has changed several times government officials say it could be three months before a relief valve is installed to stop the leak The threat could not come at a worse time as the oyster season ends and shrimp season is set to begin, a key sector for Gulf Coast’s fishing and tourism industries.

www.euronews.net – acessado em 29/04/10

5. (Ufam)  When did the leak start?
a) At the end of the shrimp season.  
b) Three months ago.  
c) Friday or Saturday.  
d) At the beginning of the oyster season.  
e) A week ago.  
6. (Ufam)  What parts of the environment are especially threatened?
a) The oysters and the shrimps.  
b) The fishing and tourism industries.  
c) BP Exploration and Production.  
d) Government officials.  
e) The US Gulf Coast.  

Humans make errors. We make errors of fact and errors of judgment. We have blind spots in our field of vision and gaps in our stream of attention. Sometimes we can’t even answer the simplest questions. Where was I last week at this time? How long have I had this pain in my knee? How much money do I typically spend in a day? These weaknesses put us at a disadvantage. We make decisions with partial information. We are forced to steer by guesswork. We go with our gut.
That is, some of us do. Others use data. A timer running on Robin Barooah’s computer tells him that he has been living in the United States for 8 years, 2 months and 10 days. At various times in his life, Barooah — a 38-year-old self-employed software designer from England who now lives in Oakland, Calif. — has also made careful records of his work, his sleep and his diet.
“People have such very poor sense of time,” Barooah says, and without good time calibration, it is much harder to see the consequences of your actions. If you want to replace the vagaries of intuition with something more reliable, you first need to gather data. Once you know the facts, you can live by them.
A fetish for numbers is the defining trait of the modern manager. 1Corporate executives facing down hostile shareholders load their pockets full of numbers. So do politicians on the hustings, doctors counseling patients and fans abusing their local sports franchise on talk radio.
We tolerate the pathologies of quantification — a dry, abstract, mechanical type of knowledge — because the results are so powerful. Numbering things allows tests, comparisons, experiments. Numbers make problems less resonant emotionally but more tractable intellectually. In science, in business and in the more reasonable sectors of government, numbers have won fair and square.
Almost imperceptibly, numbers are now infiltrating the last redoubts of the personal. Sleep, exercise, sex, food, mood, location, alertness, productivity, even spiritual well-being are being tracked and measured, shared and displayed. On MedHelp, one of the largest Internet forums for health information, more than 30,000 new personal tracking projects are started by users every month.
We use numbers when we want to tune up a car, analyze a chemical reaction, predict the outcome of an election. We use numbers to optimize an assembly line. Why not use numbers on ourselves?
For many self-trackers, the goal is unknown. Although they may take up tracking with a specific question in mind, they continue because they believe their numbers hold secrets that they can’t afford to ignore, including answers to questions they have not yet thought to ask.
Until a few years ago it would have been pointless to seek self-knowledge through numbers.
Then four things changed. First, electronic sensors got smaller and better. Second, people started carrying powerful computing devices, typically disguised as mobile phones. Third, social media made it seem normal to share everything. And fourth, we began to get an inkling of the rise of a global superintelligence known as the cloud.
Millions of us track ourselves all the time. We step on a scale and record our weight. We balance a checkbook. We count calories. But when the familiar pen-and-paper methods of self-analysis are enhanced by sensors that monitor our behavior automatically, the process of self-tracking becomes both more alluring and more meaningful. Automated sensors do more than give us facts; they also remind us that our ordinary behavior contains obscure quantitative signals that can be used to inform our behavior, once we learn to read them.
At the center of this personal laboratory is the mobile phone. During the years that personal-data systems were making their rapid technical progress, many people started entering small reports about their lives into a phone. Sharing became the term for the quick post to a social network: a status update to Facebook, a reading list on Goodreads, a location on Dopplr, Web tags to Delicious, songs to Last.fm, your breakfast menu on Twitter. “People got used to sharing”, says David Lammers-Meis, who leads the design work on the fitness-tracking products at Garmin. “The more they want to share, the more they want to have something to share.” Personal data are ideally suited to a social life of sharing. You might not always have something to say, but you always have a number to report.

From: The New York Times. www.nytimes.com. April 26, 2010.

7. (Uece)  One of the reasons why we make so many errors is the fact that
a) decision-making is a very complicated task.  
b) we rarely use a good timer.  
c) our decisions are based on incomplete information.  
d) we rely completely on our computer systems.  
8. (Uece)  According to Barooah, if a person wants to see the results of his/her acts, he/she must
a) put together personal information.  
b) compare his/her attitudes with others’.  
c) consult a specialist on data systems.
d) forget about the management of time.  
9. (Uece)  In the sentence “Corporate executives facing down hostile shareholders load their pockets full of numbers.” (ref. 1), the part in italics means
a) put lots of dollars in their pockets.  
b) download huge files from the net.  
c) gather lots of relevant data.  
d) fill their pockets with lots of papers.  
10. (Uece)  As to the objectives of self-tracking, it is stated in the text that
a) all the people who get involved in the process have very clear objectives.  
b) many people do not have exactly specific goals.  
c) the majority of people do it just as a spare time activity.  
d) 30,000 people do it because it is fashionable.  

Apart from being about murder, suicide, torture, fear and madness, horror stories are also concerned with ghosts, vampires, succubi, incubi, poltergeists, demonic pacts, diabolic possession and exorcism, witchcraft, spiritualism, voodoo, lycanthropy and the macabre, plus such occult or quasi occult practices as telekinesis and hylomancy. Some horror stories are serio-comic or comic- grotesque, but none the less alarming or frightening for that.
From late in the 18th c. until the present day – in short, for some two hundred years – the horror story (which is perhaps a mode rather than an identifiable genre) in its many and various forms has been a diachronic feature of British and American literature and is of considerable importance in literary history, especially in the evolution of the short story. It is also important because of its connections with the Gothic novel and with a multitude of fiction associated with tales of mystery, suspense, terror and the supernatural, with the ghost story and the thriller and with numerous stories in the 19th and 20th c. in which crime is a central theme.
The horror story is part of a long process by which people have tried to come to terms with and find adequate descriptions and symbols for deeply rooted, primitive and powerful forces, energies and fears which are related to death, afterlife, punishment, darkness, evil, violence and destruction.
Writers have long been aware of the magnetic attraction of the horrific and have seen how to exploit or appeal to particular inclinations and appetites. It was the poets and artists of the late medieval period who figured out and expressed some of the innermost fears and some of the ultimate horrors (real and imaginary) of human consciousness. Fear created horrors enough and the eschatological order was never far from people’s minds. Poets dwelt on and amplified the ubi sunt motif and artists depicted the spectre of death in paint, through sculpture and by means of woodcut. The most potent and 1frightening image of all was that of hell: the abode of eternal loss, pain and damnation. There were numerous “visions” of hell in literature.
Gradually, imperceptibly, during the 16th c. hell was “moved” from its traditional site in the center of the earth. It came to be located in the mind; it was a part of a state of consciousness. This was the 2beginning of the growth of the idea of a subjective, inner hell, a psychological hell; a personal and individual source of horror and terror, such as the chaos of a disturbed and tormented mind, the pandaemonium of psychopathic conditions, rather than the abode of lux atra and 3everlasting pain with its definite location in a measurable cosmological system.
The horror stories of the late 16th and early 17th c. (like the ghost stories) are provided for us by the playwrights. The Elizabethan and Jacobean tragedians were deeply interested in evil, crime, murder, suicide and violence. They were also very interested in states of extreme 5suffering: pain, fear and madness. They found new modes, new metaphors and images, for presenting the horrific and in doing so they created simulacra of hell.
One might cite perhaps a thousand or more instances from plays in the period c. 1580 to c. 1642 in which hell is an all- purpose, variable and diachronic image of horror whether as a place of punishment or as a state of mind and spirit. Horrific action on stage was commonplace in the tragedy and revenge tragedy of the period. The satiety which Macbeth claimed to have experienced when he said: “I have supp’d full of horrors;/ Direness, familiar to my slaughterous thoughts, /Cannot once start me…” was representative of it.
During the 18th c. (as during the 19th ), in orthodox doctrine taught by various “churches” and sects, hell remained a place of eternal fire and punishment and the abode of the Devil. For the most part writers of the Romantic period and thereafter did not re-create it as a visitable place. However, artists were drawn to “illustrate” earlier conceptions of hell. William Blake did 102 engravings for Dante’s Inferno. John Martin illustrated Paradise Lost and Gustave Doré applied himself to Dante and Milton. The actual hells of the 18th and 19th c. were the gaols, the madhouses, the slums and bedlams and those lanes and alleys where vice, squalor, depravity and unspeakable misery created a social and moral chaos: terrestrial counterparts to the horrors of Dante’s Circles.
Gothic influence traveled to America and affected writers such as Edgar Allan Poe, whose tales are short, intense, sensational and have the power to inspire horror and terror. He depicts extremes of fear and insanity and, through the operations of evil, gives us glimpses of hell.
Poe’s long-term influence was immeasurable (and in the case of some writers not altogether for their good), and one can detect it persisting through the 19th c.; in, for example the French symbolistes (Baudelaire published translations of his tales in 1856 and 1857), in such British writers as Rossetti, Swinburne, Dowson and R. L. Stevenson, and in such Americans as Ambrose Bierce, Hart Crane and H.P. Lovecraft.
Towards the end of the 19th c. a number of British and American writers were 4experimenting with different modes of horror story, and this was at a time when there had been a steadily growing interest in the occult, in supernatural agencies, in psychic phenomena, in psychotherapy, in extreme psychological states and also in spiritualism.
The enormous increase in science fiction since the 1950s has diversified horror fiction even more than might at first be supposed. New maps of hell have been drawn and are being drawn; new dimensions of the horrific exposed and explored; new simulacra and exempla created. Fear, pain, suffering, guilt and madness (what has already been touched on in miscellaneous “hells”) remain powerful and emotive elements in horror stories. In a chaotic world, which many see to be on a disaster course, through the cracks, “the faults in reality”, we and our writers catch other vertiginous glimpses of “chaos and old night”, fissiparating images of death and destruction.

CUDDON, J. A. The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. London: Penguin, 1999.

11. (Uece)  Among the many themes explored in horror stories, one can include
a) witchcraft, lycanthropy, and occult practices.  
b) vampires, hylomancy, psychical research.  
c) occult practices, betrayal and madhouses.  
d) the slums, moral chaos and depravity.  

Resposta da questão 1: [C]

Espera-se que o candidato consiga reconhecer a informação no trecho:  …Petrobras believes Tupi may be Brazil’s first of several new “elephants,” an industry term for outsize fields of more than 1 billion barrels.

Resposta da questão 2: [E]

Espera-se que o candidato seja capaz de identificar que o pronome "that" refere-se ao sentimento do presidente Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (de que uma força superior gostou do Brasil).

Resposta da questão 3: [C]

A resposta encontra-se no trecho do segundo parágrafo: …he gave it up to devote himself to writing.

Resposta da questão 4: [D]

A resposta encontra-se no último parágrafo: "…The rich Occidental women have egos... feel compelled to travel to Africa in search of young black men because the power dynamics are in their favour." 

Resposta da questão 5: [E]

A resposta encontra-se no seguinte trecho do 1º parágrafo: "The spill began a week ago..."

Resposta da questão 6: [A]

A resposta encontra-se no final do segundo parágrafo:"The threat could not come at a worse time as the oyster season ends and shrimp season is set to begin…"

Resposta da questão 7: [C]

A resposta encontra-se no seguinte trecho do primeiro parágrafo: " We make decisions with partial information."

Resposta da questão 8: [A]

O candidato deve ser capaz de interpretar o seguinte trecho do terceiro parágrafo: " If you want to replace the vagaries of intuition with something more reliable, you first need to gather data."

Resposta da questão 9: [C]

Espera-se que o aluno seja capaz de interpretar a expressão destacada.

Resposta da questão 10: [B]

A resposta encontra-se no seguinte trecho do oitavo parágrafo: " For many self-trackers, the goal is unknown."

Resposta da questão 11: [A]

A resposta encontra-se no 1º parágrafo: …horror stories are also concerned with ghosts, vampires, succubi, incubi, poltergeists, demonic pacts, diabolic possession and exorcism, witchcraft, spiritualism, voodoo, lycanthropy and the macabre, plus such occult or quasi occult practices

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